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Средства выразительности в английском языке

Без чтения художественной литературы в оригинале изучение иностранного языка было бы неполным. Красота языка Шекспира, порой непереводимая, хорошо передается художественными средствами. В английском языке они называются Fugures of Speech или Poetic Figures.

В данной статье речь пойдёт о самых популярных средствах выразительности в английском языке: эпитетах, сравнениях, метонимии, зевгме, каламбуре, олицетворении, аллюзии и др. Весь языковой материал представлен в табличном виде и рассмотрен на примерах классических произведений английской литературы.

Сохраните данную таблицу у себя в социальных сетях, чтобы с лёгкостью уметь выполнять анализ художественных произведений на английском языке!

Таблица фигур речи в английском языке с примерами:

Фигура речи (Figure of speech)




Метонимия (Metonymy) Metonymy – a conceptual projection whereby one experiential domain is partially understood in terms of another experiential domain included in the same common experiential domain. The pen is mightier than the sword. (“Richelieu” by Edward Bulwer-Lytton)

“Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears.” (“Julies Caesar”  by W. Shakespeare)

Зевгма (Zeugma) Zeugma – linguistic construction in which a verb governs two nouns, one of which is literally, and the other metaphorically, related to the verb. I packed my shirt and sadness.

He took his hat and his leave.

“Oh, flowers are as common here, Miss Fairfax, as people are in London.” (“The Importance of being Earnest” by Oscar Wilde)

Каламбур (Pun) Pun – linguistic construction in which one word is used in two syntactic categories. Your children need your presence more than your presents. (by Jesse Jackson)

“The Importance Of Being Earnest” (by Oscar Wilde)

«The truth is rarely pure and never simple. Modern life would be very tedious if it were either, and modern literature a complete impossibility!» (“The Importance of being Earnest” by Oscar Wilde)

Ирония (Irony) Irony – a statement that contradicts the actual attitude of the writer/speaker. It’s a lovely day (when the weather is nasty);

Minitru (the Ministry of Truth dedicates itself to destroying the truth); Miniluv (the Ministry of Love handles torture) – “1984” by George Orwell

Эпитет (Epithet) Epithet – a stylistic device which expressively qualifies a subject by naming its characteristics – reveals a purely individual emotional attitude. lazy road, sweet melodies, tired landscape;

soft repentant moan (“Morning” by W. Blake)

“I retired Into a silent bay, or sportively Glanced sideway” (by W. Wordsworth)

a season of happiness and enjoyment;

“His view is that a sermon nowadays should be a bright, brisk, straight-from-the-shoulder address, never lasting more than ten or twelve minutes.” (“The Inimitable Jeeves” by P.G. Wodehouse)

Сравнение (Comparison / Simile) Simile – a linguistic structure of the form “A is like B. Ordinary comparisons – generally literally true, similes – literally false. Encyclopaedias are like dictionaries. (comparison by A. Ortony)

Encyclopaedias are like gold mines. (simile by A. Ortony)

“Old as a coat on a chair; and his crushed hand as inexpressive as a bird’s face.” (“Beggar” by Terence Tiller)

“Rage is like a volcano” (“Rage” by Jake Atchinson)

Аллюзия (Allusion) Allusion – a stylistic device, a reference to a famous historical or literary figure or event placed in a different context. Plan ahead: it wasn’t raining when Noah built the ark. (by Howard Ruff)
Олицетворение (Personification) Personification – a stylistic device which metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes. Ideas and abstractions can also be personified. I can’t get the fuel pump back on because this bolt is being uncooperative.

Wisdom cries aloud in the streets. Psalm 1:20 (RSV; and cf. 1:21-33)

The ship began to creak and protest as it struggled against the rising sea.

Антономазия (Antonomasia) 1) Eponym – substitutes for a particular attribute or the name of a famous person recognized for that attribute.

2) Telling name – a person’s name which serves to denote his/her essential characteristics.

You think your boyfriend is tight. I had a date with Scrooge himself last night.

Mr. Jingle, Mr. Hyde, Bubbles

Оксюморон (Oxymoron) Oxymoron – a stylistic device which consists of two words either antonyms or a hyponym of its antonym. “To live a life half-dead, a living death” (by John Milton)

The silence whistles. («Summer Night» by Nathan Alterman)

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